Errata: MCAT FastPass Study Guide

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We are so grateful to our students for their help in making improvements to the first edition of the MCAT FastPass Study Guide! Below are student-reported errata. If you would like to report an error or suggest an improvement for the second edition, please send us an email at medquest.mcat.errata@gmail.com.

Thank you to the following people for their contributions! Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ashley Singh, Nickesha Kelly, Claudio Villalobos

Corrections/Clarifications

pg. 41: "formaldehyde is the simplest ketone..." should read, "formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde."

pg. 136: "Troponin and tropomyosin are located on the ends of each thick myosin filament, and power the contraction of the sarcomere..." should read: "Troponin and tropomyosin are located on the thin actin filaments, and power the contraction of the sarcomere by mediating binding of thin actin filaments with thick myosin filaments"

pg. 148:"- Information projected on the R side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the L side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the L visual cortex. - Information projected on the L side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the R side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the R visual cortex..." should read: "- Information projected on the R side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the L side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the R visual cortex. - Information projected on the L side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the R side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the L visual cortex."

 

Ommitted page (pg 186): Language. The text below will be added to the second edition:

Language: how it develops, how it interacts with cognition, and associated neuroanatomy.

  • Theories of language development
    • Nativist: children are born with the ability to learn language. Noam Chomsky. “language acquisition device” allows for language learning, only operates in critical period, then specializes to your language. Critical/sensitive period: birth to age 8 or 9.
    • Learning: children acquire language through reinforcement. Parents reward
    • Social interactionist:  biological and social factors interact. Children want to communicate, which motivates them to learn language. Vygotsky.
  • Influence of language on cognition
    • Universalism: if people think of the world only having two colors, they will only use two words for color.
    • Piaget: Thought influences language. Once children can think in a certain way, then they develop language to describe it. (ex: learn the word “gone” when they develop object permanence)
    • Vygotsky: language and thought are independent, but converge in development.
      • Children learn to think and talk at the same time.
    • Weak linguistic determinism: language influences thought. Ex: if you read left to right, you tend to think of actions occurring from left to right. The structure of language means its easier to think about things in certain ways.
    • The Whorfian Hypothesis (strong linguistic determinism): language fully determines thought. If you only have two words for color, then you only think about the world in terms of those two colors.
  • Brain areas that control language and speech
    • 90% of right-handed people have language localized in the left hemisphere. 60% of left-handed people have language localized in the right hemisphere.
    • Broca’s area: localization of language production. Ablation leads to non-fluent aphasia.
    • Wernicke’s area: localization of language fluency and comprehension. Ablation leads to fluent aphasia (“word salad”) and trouble understanding language.
    • Connected by the arcuate fasciculus. Damage results in conduction aphasia, in which you are unable to repeat words and phrases, even though you understand them.

Topics to be Added/Expanded

- Calculating rate constants, rate law for non-enzymatic reactions

- Reaction order

- Law of mass action

- Description of enzymes: kinases, decarboxylases, dehydrogenases

- Peptidoglycan and prokaryotes

- Liver and cholesterol production

- Endothelial cells as specific type of epithelial cells

- Glycoproteins

- Reuptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

- Action potentials and the t-tubule system