We are so grateful to our students for their help in making improvements to the first edition of the MCAT FastPass Study Guide! Below are student-reported errata. If you would like to report an error or suggest an improvement for the second edition, please send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thank you to the following people for their contributions! Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ashley Singh, Nickesha Kelly, Claudio Villalobos
pg. 41: "formaldehyde is the simplest ketone..." should read, "formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde."
pg. 136: "Troponin and tropomyosin are located on the ends of each thick myosin filament, and power the contraction of the sarcomere..." should read: "Troponin and tropomyosin are located on the thin actin filaments, and power the contraction of the sarcomere by mediating binding of thin actin filaments with thick myosin filaments"
pg. 148:"- Information projected on the R side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the L side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the L visual cortex. - Information projected on the L side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the R side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the R visual cortex..." should read: "- Information projected on the R side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the L side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the R visual cortex. - Information projected on the L side of BOTH retinas (wich is information from the R side of each eye's visual field) is transmitted to the L visual cortex."
Ommitted page (pg 186): Language. The text below will be added to the second edition:
Language: how it develops, how it interacts with cognition, and associated neuroanatomy.
- Theories of language development
- Nativist: children are born with the ability to learn language. Noam Chomsky. “language acquisition device” allows for language learning, only operates in critical period, then specializes to your language. Critical/sensitive period: birth to age 8 or 9.
- Learning: children acquire language through reinforcement. Parents reward
- Social interactionist: biological and social factors interact. Children want to communicate, which motivates them to learn language. Vygotsky.
- Influence of language on cognition
- Universalism: if people think of the world only having two colors, they will only use two words for color.
- Piaget: Thought influences language. Once children can think in a certain way, then they develop language to describe it. (ex: learn the word “gone” when they develop object permanence)
- Vygotsky: language and thought are independent, but converge in development.
- Children learn to think and talk at the same time.
- Weak linguistic determinism: language influences thought. Ex: if you read left to right, you tend to think of actions occurring from left to right. The structure of language means its easier to think about things in certain ways.
- The Whorfian Hypothesis (strong linguistic determinism): language fully determines thought. If you only have two words for color, then you only think about the world in terms of those two colors.
- Brain areas that control language and speech
- 90% of right-handed people have language localized in the left hemisphere. 60% of left-handed people have language localized in the right hemisphere.
- Broca’s area: localization of language production. Ablation leads to non-fluent aphasia.
- Wernicke’s area: localization of language fluency and comprehension. Ablation leads to fluent aphasia (“word salad”) and trouble understanding language.
- Connected by the arcuate fasciculus. Damage results in conduction aphasia, in which you are unable to repeat words and phrases, even though you understand them.
Topics to be Added/Expanded
- Calculating rate constants, rate law for non-enzymatic reactions
- Reaction order
- Law of mass action
- Description of enzymes: kinases, decarboxylases, dehydrogenases
- Peptidoglycan and prokaryotes
- Liver and cholesterol production
- Endothelial cells as specific type of epithelial cells
- Reuptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Action potentials and the t-tubule system